02) and longer recovery time (Greenlee, Georgeson, Magnussen, Harris, 1991). When observers are
Similar results have already been shown for superimposed gratings of distinctive orientations. Selectively attending to a given colour or orientation increases the extent of the corresponding aftereffects (Liu, Larsson, et al., 2007; Spivey Spirn, 2000). These research suggest that attending to a feature can lead to a stronger response of a neural population tuned to that feature. six.two.1.two. Perceptual efficiency: Many psychophysical research have demonstrated that FBA improves Electrophysiological studies have compared the effects of spatial attention and FBA detection and enhances functionality. Early studies displaying that foreknowledge about spatial frequency (Davis Graham, 1981; Davis et al., 1983) and direction of motion (Ball title= fpsyg.2016.01152 Sekuler, 1981) Internal noise reduction (Fig. 3e) would influence overall performance across all levels improve process functionality help the notion that attention reduces uncertainty about stimulus characteristics. Later perform has shown that featurebased cues can affect low-level visual sensitivity. For instance, attending selectively to dots moving within a unique direction improves detection of speed increments, relative to when observers simultaneously monitor the superimposed dots moving within the opposite direction (Liu, Stevens et al., 2007). Moreover, advance expertise of a stimulus's function improves perception even inside the absence of simultaneous distractors. By way of example, a critical-band masking paradigm has shown that precueing the orientation of a stimulus improves its detection (Baldassi Verghese, 2005), and an equivalent-noise paradigm has revealed that precueing the approximate direction of moving dots improves path discrimination (Ling et al., 2009). These research are consistent with all the hypothesis that focus boosts sensitivity inside the psychophysical channels that finest represent the target stimulus, and indicate variations within the way spatial attention and FBA have an effect on orientation-tuning curves (see below, Section 6.three.two, comparing effects and mechanisms of spatial attention and FBA). six.two.two. Neurophysio.02) and longer recovery time (Greenlee, Georgeson, Magnussen, Harris, 1991). title= srep30523 When observers are asked to selectively attend to a single of two spatially superimposed dot fields that differ in motion direction, the contribution in the attended field to the resulting motion after-effect is stronger than if it were not attended (Lankheet Verstraten, 1995). One more study coping with motion aftereffects showed that when observers adapt continuously to motion inside a unique path, over which brief motion pulses of one more direction are superimposed, the direction from the subsequent motion after-effect adjustments if observers are necessary to monitor for the pulses (Alais Blake, 1999). According to which on the eight `attentional' motion directions was combined together with the adapting motion, compact systematic deviations in the direction in the motion aftereffect should really comply with a sinusoidal pattern oscillating around 180? The authors hypothesized that if focus boosted theNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptVision Res. Author manuscript; accessible in PMC 2012 July 05.CarrascoPageneuronal response to an attended motion, then active situations would yield a largeramplitude sinusoid than passive conditions. Fig. 16 shows the path and magnitude with the motion title= pjms.324.8942 aftereffect plotted as a function of the direction of attended motion. As predicted, attention enhanced the deviations inside the motion aftereffect within the path opposite towards the adapting motion. Taken collectively, these outcomes imply that FBA selectively increases responses to the attended direction. Related final results have been shown for superimposed gratings of diverse orientations.