Acter state has been reported within ornithomimosaurs, therizinosauroids, alvarezsauroids, tyrannosaurids
Despite the fact that the coracoid tubercle of Balaur may well appear autapomorphic amongst non-avialan theropods (Brusatte et al., 2013), a prominent coracoid tubercle can also be present in unenlagiines (Buitreraptor, see Agnol Novas, 2013), basal avialans i (e.g., Jeholornis, Jixiangornis; Turner, Makovicky Norell, 2012, Fig. 82), and forms the acrocoracoid of ornithothoracines (e.g., Apsaravis, Enantiophoenix, Enantiornis; Clarke Norell, 2002; Baier, Gatesy Jenkins, 2007; Cau Arduini, 2008; Walker Dyke, 2009; Fig. 1). A hypertrophied coracoid tubercle that obscures the supracoracoid nerve foramen in lateral view is also observed in Sapeornis (Zhou Zhang, 2003; Gao et al., 2012).Humerus longer than half the combined length of tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsusThe ratio involving the lengths with the humerus and femur is generally thought of as a phylogenetically informative buy RP5264 character in discussions on the evolution of coelurosaurian theropods (e.g., Brusatte et al., 2014, character 262), as that ratio is generally larger amongst avialans than it is actually in most non-avialan theropods. Because the femur of Balaur is unknown (Brusatte et al., 2013), we applied the ratio in between the length with the humerus plus the sum with the lengths from the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus. The humerus of non-avialan theropods is consistently shorter than half the combined length on the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus (e.g., Deinonychus, Gallimimus, Microraptor, Tyrannosaurus; Ostrom, 1969; Osm ska, o Roniewicz Barsbold, 1972; Hwang et al., 2002; Brochu, 2003). In Balaur, the humerus is longer than half the combined length of your tibiotarsus and ta.Acter state has been reported within ornithomimosaurs, therizinosauroids, alvarezsauroids, tyrannosaurids and oviraptorosaurs (Osm ska, Roniewicz Barsbold, 1972; Perle, 1979; Perle et al., 1994; o Brochu, 2003; Balanoff Norell, 2012), suggesting a high degree of homoplasy. Fusion with the scapulocoracoid is also present in basal avialans (e.g., Confuciusornithidae; Chiappe et al., 1999) and flightless avians (e.g., Struthio; ACUB 4820).Coracoid with prominent tuber placed around the anterolateral cornerThe coracoid of Balaur bears a hypertrophied tubercle that types the anterolateral corner from the bone and obscures the supracoracoid nerve foramen when the coracoid is observed in lateral view (Fig. 1A; Brusatte et al., 2013). Non-avialan theropods possess tuberclesCau et al. (2015), PeerJ, DOI 10.7717/peerj.4/Figure 1 Comparison amongst the scapulocoracoid of Balaur as well as other paravians. Comparison in the scapulocoracoid of (A) Balaur (lateral view) to that of (B) the pygostylian Enantiophoenix (medial view); and (C) the dromaeosaurid Velociraptor (lateral view); (A) soon after Csiki et al.. (2010, Fig. 1); (B) modified soon after Cau Arduini (2008, Fig. 2); (C) soon after Norell Makovicky (1999, Fig. 4). All scapulocoracoids are drawn with the proximal half on the scapular blade oriented horizontally to show relative placement of coracoid tubercle. Scale bar: ten mm (A); five mm (B); 10 mm (C). Abbreviations: ac, acromion; co, coracoid; ct, coracoid tubercle; gl, glenoid; me, missing element; sc, scapula; snf, supracoracoid nerve foramen.Cau et al. (2015), PeerJ, DOI ten.7717/peerj.5/that are comparatively smaller sized and more lateroventrally directed (when the scapula is oriented horizontally) than that observed in avialan theropods (Fig. 1C; Osm ska, Roniewicz Barsbold, o 1972; Ostrom, 1976; this really is the "processus praeglenoidalis" sensu Elzanowski, Chiappe Witmer, 2002). Though the coracoid tubercle of Balaur could seem autapomorphic among non-avialan theropods (Brusatte et al., 2013), a prominent coracoid tubercle can also be present in unenlagiines (Buitreraptor, see Agnol Novas, 2013), basal avialans i (e.g., Jeholornis, Jixiangornis; Turner, Makovicky Norell, 2012, Fig.