Acter state has been reported inside ornithomimosaurs, therizinosauroids, alvarezsauroids, tyrannosaurids

Aus KletterWiki
Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche

Issues, Fourth Edition (14). A extensive discussion {regarding non-avialan theropods possess tuberclesCau et al. Comparison of your scapulocoracoid of (A) Balaur (lateral view) to that of (B) the pygostylian Enantiophoenix (medial view); and (C) the dromaeosaurid D self-esteem of some folks with Velociraptor (lateral view); (A) just after Csiki et al.. (2010, Fig. 1); (B) modified after Cau Arduini (2008, Fig. two); (C) soon after Norell Makovicky (1999, Fig. four). All scapulocoracoids are drawn using the proximal half on the scapular blade oriented horizontally to show relative placement of coracoid tubercle. Scale bar: ten mm (A); five mm (B); ten mm (C). Abbreviations: ac, acromion; co, coracoid; ct, coracoid tubercle; gl, glenoid; me, missing element; sc, scapula; snf, supracoracoid nerve foramen.Cau et al. (2015), PeerJ, DOI 10.7717/peerj.5/that are somewhat smaller and much more lateroventrally directed (when the scapula is oriented horizontally) than that noticed in avialan theropods (Fig. 1C; Osm ska, Roniewicz Barsbold, o 1972; Ostrom, 1976; this is the "processus praeglenoidalis" sensu Elzanowski, Chiappe Witmer, 2002). While the coracoid tubercle of Balaur may perhaps appear autapomorphic amongst non-avialan theropods (Brusatte et al., 2013), a prominent coracoid tubercle can also be present in unenlagiines (Buitreraptor, see Agnol Novas, 2013), basal avialans i (e.g., Jeholornis, Jixiangornis; Turner, Makovicky Norell, 2012, Fig. 82), and forms the acrocoracoid of ornithothoracines (e.g., Apsaravis, Enantiophoenix, Enantiornis; Clarke Norell, 2002; Baier, Gatesy Jenkins, 2007; Cau Arduini, 2008; Walker Dyke, 2009; Fig. 1). A hypertrophied coracoid tubercle that obscures the supracoracoid nerve foramen in lateral view is also observed in Sapeornis (Zhou Zhang, 2003; Gao et al., 2012).Humerus longer than half the combined length of tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsusThe ratio between the lengths with the humerus and femur is generally considered as a phylogenetically informative character in discussions on the evolution of coelurosaurian theropods (e.g., Brusatte et al., 2014, character 262), as that ratio is generally higher amongst avialans than it is actually in most non-avialan theropods. Because the femur of Balaur is unknown (Brusatte et al., 2013), we applied the ratio in between the length with the humerus and the sum of your lengths from the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus. The humerus of non-avialan theropods is consistently shorter than half the combined length on the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus (e.g., Deinonychus, Gallimimus, Microraptor, Tyrannosaurus; Ostrom, 1969; Osm ska, o Roniewicz Barsbold, 1972; Hwang et al., 2002; Brochu, 2003). In Balaur, the humerus is longer than half the combined length of the tibiotarsus and ta.Acter state has been reported within ornithomimosaurs, therizinosauroids, alvarezsauroids, tyrannosaurids and oviraptorosaurs (Osm ska, Roniewicz Barsbold, 1972; Perle, 1979; Perle et al., 1994; o Brochu, 2003; Balanoff Norell, 2012), suggesting a high degree of homoplasy. Fusion from the scapulocoracoid can also be present in basal avialans (e.g., Confuciusornithidae; Chiappe et al., 1999) and flightless avians (e.g., Struthio; ACUB 4820).Coracoid with prominent tuber placed around the anterolateral cornerThe coracoid of Balaur bears a hypertrophied tubercle that forms the anterolateral corner of the bone and obscures the supracoracoid nerve foramen when the coracoid is observed in lateral view (Fig. 1A; Brusatte et al., 2013). Non-avialan theropods possess tuberclesCau et al. (2015), PeerJ, DOI 10.7717/peerj.4/Figure 1 Comparison amongst the scapulocoracoid of Balaur along with other paravians. Comparison of the scapulocoracoid of (A) Balaur (lateral view) to that of (B) the pygostylian Enantiophoenix (medial view); and (C) the dromaeosaurid Velociraptor (lateral view); (A) following Csiki et al..