Al for each concrete and abstract words, there are much more subtle
The dorsolateral ATL is weighted towardsMeaning of abstract words(a) (b)Figure two. Activations to concrete and abstract words in the left anterior temporal lobe. Final results are taken from an fMRI study performed by Hoffman et al. (2015). Participants produced synonym judgements to abstract and concrete words. The information presented within this figure are combined more than two cueing circumstances (see Figure three for facts). (a) Activations to concrete and abstract word decisions inside the ventral ATL (marked with an asterisk), relative to baseline. The cortical overlay indicates areas active for both word types. (b) Contrast of abstract minus concrete words in an anterior section of every temporal gyrus. STG, superior temporal gyrus; MTG, middle temporal gyrus; ITG, inferior temporal gyrus; FG, fusiform gyrus; PHG, parahippocampal gyrus.auditory-verbal aspects of knowledge, simply because this region receives powerful connections from major auditory processing apparatus in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (Binney et al., 2012; Fan et al., 2014; Pascual et al., 2015; Visser Lambon Ralph, 2011). In contrast, the ventromedial ATL is strongly connected to posterior fusiform and jir.2011.0073 parahippocampal areas in the ventral visual stream (Binney et al., 2012; Fan et al., 2014; Pascual et al., 2015), which mediate high-level visual object processing, and hence displays relative specialization for visual-perceptual aspects of information (Visser et al., 2012). This graded specialization for verbal versus visual understanding in the ATL, combined together with the dual-coding view that concrete and abstract words rely differentially on such know-how, readily accounts for the pattern shown in Figure 2b. The above discussion has focused around the relative value of visual and verbal knowledge to concrete and abstract ideas, respectively, and around the established concept that abstract ideas lack the jir.2013.0113 sensory data linked with their concrete counterparts. Researchers are now starting to discover other elements of encounter that assistance abstract word comprehension. In an innovative study, Troche, Crutch, and Reilly (2014) asked participants to rate the relevance of several elements of encounter, for instance time, space, believed, and emotion, to particular words (see also Crutch, Williams,Paul HoffmanRidgway, Borgenicht, 2012). They discovered that when concrete words have been invariably strongly connected with perceptual sensation (as investigated in detail by Gainotti, Ciaraffa, Silveri, Marra, 2009; Hoffman Lambon Ralph, 2013), other aspects of experience had been a lot more salient for abstract words. In unique, they identified that some abstract words have been strongly linked to knowledge of feelings, morality, and social interaction, whilst other individuals have been linked with time, space, and quantity. Other authors have argued in parallel that emotional content plays an important function in representation of abstract ideas (Kousta et al., 2011). (-)-BlebbistatinMedChemExpress (-)-Blebbistatin Interestingly, re.Al for both concrete and abstract words, there are additional subtle gradations in response across the region. What would be the implications of those findings? One possibility is that the ATL as a entire acts as a hub for semantic representation but that graded specialization emerges within this region as a function of differential connectivity with posterior sensory cortices (Binney, Parker, Lambon Ralph, 2012; Hoffman et al., 2012; Plaut, 2002). On this view, the relative contributions of particular subregions in the ATL rely on the inputs they obtain. The dorsolateral ATL is weighted towardsMeaning of abstract words(a) (b)Figure two.